1.Francoeur, A. 1973. Revision taxonomique des especes nearctiques du group fusca, genre Formica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

2.Francoeur, A. 1997. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Yukon. In Insects of the Yukon. Edited by H.V. Danks and J.A. Downes Biological Survey of Canada (Terrestrial Arthropods), Ottawa, ON, Canada. Pp. 901-910.

3.Halverson, D. D., Wheeler, J., and Wheeler, G. C. 1976. Natural history of the sandhill ant, Formica bradleyi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 49(2): 280–303.

4.Shaddock, J. (unpublished web site). A key to the ants of Manitoba. Department of Entomology, University of Manitoba.

5.Tulloch, G. S. 1960. Torre-Bueno's Glossary of Entomology: Supplement A. Brooklyn Entomological Society.

6.Wheeler, G. C. and Wheeler, J. 1963. The ants of North Dakota. Grand Forks, ND, USA: University of North Dakota.

7.Wheeler, G. C., and Wheeler, J. 1977. North Dakota ants updated. Desert Research Institute, University of Nevada System.

8.Wheeler, G.C., Wheeler, J., Galloway, T. D., and Ayre, G. L. 1989. A List of the Ants of Manitoba. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Manitoba, 45:34-48.

9.Wheeler, W.M. 1923. Social life among insects. Harcourt Brace and Co., New York.


   I extend my sincere gratitude and appreciation to many people who made this species web page, Formica Ants of Manitoba, possible. With a deep sense of gratitude, I express my thanks to my course instructor (ENTM 7200: Advance Insect Taxonomy), Dr. Barb Sharanowski for her concern, advice, guidance and comments at various stages of this project.

   I also acknowledge Dr. Terry Galloway for his comments and providing useful information of ant identification. I also offer my sincere gratitude to Jeff Shaddock for providing his unpublished key, A Key to the Ants of Manitoba, to accomplish this web page success. I also express my thanks to all photographers from the Alex Wild Photography, Dr. Alex Wild, and the Ant Web, April Nobile, Shannon Hartman, Ryan Perry, Erin Prado and Will Ericson, to grant permission to use their photographs in this species web page.

   Last, but not least, a warm appreciation goes to my wife, Udari, my parents and my brother, for assisting me at various stages of this project and for valuable criticism.